Cancer is a genetic disease.
In some cases, a mutation that causes cancer susceptibility is passed down through the generations in the family, causing the person carrying the mutation to have an increased risk of cancer (see Hereditary cancer predisposition ). Breast, ovary, colon, pancreas, prostate, etc. Cancer types are among the hereditary cancers and in cases with a family history, they should be evaluated with genetic counseling.
In some cases, mutations in genes that control cell growth and division can cause a healthy cell to turn into a tumor cell. Cancer often occurs as a result of the lifetime accumulation of multiple mutations. Environmental factors, lifestyle, ultraviolet rays, hormones and viruses may play a role in the development of cancer.
Mutations that occur in cells are in different genes, numbers and types in different people. Tumor characteristics seen in each individual are unique and individual. Cancer treatment should also be individualized.
What do genetic tests do for cancer?
. Determining the most appropriate treatment option for the individual
. Identifying the underlying cause and planning treatment alternatives in cases where there is no response to treatment
. Prediction of treatment response and disease course
. Researching individual clinical trial options
How is genetic testing done in cancer?
The tissue obtained as a result of biopsy or operation contains tumor cells. These cells are separated from healthy cells in the laboratory and the characteristics of the DNA, RNA or proteins of the tumor are tested. In cases where biopsy cannot be performed, blood can also be used to obtain tumor cells. This application, which is defined as Liquid Biopsy, can be used in addition to tissue biopsy in certain cases or as an alternative in cases where biopsy cannot be performed.
Who should have genetic testing?
Genetic testing is routinely performed for cancer types such as breast, ovarian, non-small cell lung and colon, and melanoma. In some cases, genetic testing may be recommended for advanced cancers that do not respond to treatment or that recur despite treatment. Consult your doctor for information about whether genetic testing is suitable for you and the benefits it can offer you.